Frequently Asked Questions

Oil and Gas Exploration in Uganda is currently taking place in the Albertine Graben (figure 1). The Graben is part of the East African Rift System and runs along Uganda’s western border with the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). The Graben is approximately 500 km long, averaging 45 km in width and 23,000 square kilometres in Uganda.

The Petroleum Value Chain is the series of activities staring from exploring for oil to consumption of petroleum products. The Petroleum Value Chain has three major phases, namely; upstream, midstream, and downstream. Upstream covers exploration, development and production of petroleum together with decommissioning. Exploration refers to the search for petroleum accumulations and includes appraisal of the same to establish the extent (distribution) of the petroleum accumulation below the earth’s surface and the ease of flow of the petroleum from this accumulation. Development involves preparing for production by putting in place facilities and infrastructure for collection, transportation and processing of crude oil and gas. Production is the removal of petroleum from the accumulations below the earth’s surface to the surface, and preparing the petroleum for transportation and refining. Midstream includes bulk transportation of petroleum commodities (crude oil and natural gas) and products (gasoline, diesel, jet fuel, etc), refining of oil and conversion of gas. It also includes converting oil and gas into marketable products and chemicals. Downstream deals with distribution, marketing and sale of petroleum products. In some countries, downstream and midstream operations are considered together as downstream operations.

Uganda confirmed commercial petroleum resources in 2006. Efforts to find oil in Uganda started as far back as the 1920s. These efforts led to the identification of surface seepages of oil and drilling of shallow wells around these seepages before 1945. One deep exploration well (Waki-1) was also drilled near Butiaba, in Buliisa district during 1938. These initial efforts were not successful in establishing commercial deposits of petroleum in the country. Renewed and consistent exploration efforts commenced in the 1980s which culminated into confirmation of commercial petroleum resources in Uganda during 2006.

The estimate resources in the country have increased from 300 million barrels in 2006 to 2 billion and 3.5 billion barrels in 2010 and 2012 respectively. As at June 2016, the discovered resources in the country were estimated at 6.0 billion barrels of oil equivalent in place with about 1.4 billion barrels of these resources recoverable (1 barrel is equivalent to 159 litres). The area explored presently represents less than 40% of the total area with the potential for petroleum production in the Albertine Graben and only 12% is licensed. There is therefore potential for additional petroleum resources to be discovered in the country when additional exploration is undertaken.

Geological factors including the fact that oil in the subsurface is stored in rocks with pores (similar to water in a sponge) and within structures, makes it impossible to recover 100% of the resources. The amount of oil to be recovered depends on the properties of the rock such as how the pores within the rock are connected to one another, reservoir pressures and type of oil, among others. Globally, an average of 20 to 30 per cent of the oil in place is recovered economically using the available technologies. Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) methods are also often used to increase the amount of oil recovered from an oil field using different technologies to supplement the natural production. EOR is used to improve movement of oil in the oil field and the different methods of EOR include polymer flooding, gas injection, and steam flooding.

Twenty-one (21) oil and/or gas discoveries have been made in Uganda to date.

The oil companies currently licensed to explore, develop and produce petroleum in the country are; Total E&P Uganda BV., Tullow Uganda Operations Pty Ltd, Tullow Uganda Limited and China National Offshore Oil Corporation (CNOOC) Uganda Limited who are Joint Venture Partners, and Armour Energy Limited and Oranto Petroleum Limited whose licenses were issued during 2017.

Article 244 of the Constitution of Uganda vests the ownership and control of minerals and petroleum in the Government on behalf of the people. The Government therefore holds all resources in trust for the people of Uganda. The Constitution also empowers Parliament to make laws regulating the exploration and exploitation of minerals and petroleum. In this regard, Section 4 of the Petroleum (Exploration, Development and Production) Act 2013 vests petroleum resources in the Government on behalf of the people.

In Uganda, at a projected peak production rate of about 200,000 barrels of oil per day, it is estimated that the current discovered resources can last 20-30 years. The length of time that oil and gas resources last in any given country largely depends on the amount of discovered resources and the rate at which these resources are produced. This rate is determined by many factors, including technical, strategic and economic reasons. However, additional exploration and appraisal is expected to be undertaken in the country, and this could lead to additional resources being discovered in the country, hence prolonging this production period. It is important that these resources are produced gradually in an efficient manner and at an economic rate that will also provide a sustained benefit to the country.

The depth at which hydrocarbon deposits are found varies greatly around the world. Very shallow deposits of less than 30metres were found in the early days of exploration. Today, it is common to produce oil from more than 3,000 metres. In Uganda, petroleum has been encountered between 290 metres and 3,000metres in the discoveries that have been made in the Albertine Graben to date.

Different types of crude oil are produced around the world. Two of the most important quality characteristics of oil are its density and sulphur content. Density ranges from light to heavy, while sulphur content is characterized as sweet or sour. Crude oils that are light (with degrees of API gravity above 360) and sweet (low sulphur content) are usually priced higher than heavy, sour crude oils. Uganda’s crude oil has; API range of 17 degrees Celcius ~ 33 degrees Celcius, with a low sulphur content but is waxy with an average pour point of 40 degreesC and hence solidifies at room temperature. Uganda’s crude oil is therefore described as sweet and medium to heavy.

In accordance with section 66 of the PEDP Act 2013, when a discovery is made, the licensee is required to notify the Government and submit a technical evaluation. The licensed Oil Company appraises the discovery to determine the extent of the discovery and the characteristics of the crude oil therein by drilling additional wells (figure 5) and/or undertaking well testing. Following completion of appraisal and interpretation of the data acquired during appraisal, the company applies for a production licence and this application is supported by a Field Development Plan (FDP) which details how the company intends to produce and transport the petroleum in the discovery; and a Petroleum Reservoir Report (PRR) that describes the technical understanding of the reservoir below the surface. These reports are reviewed by Government and discussed with the company until agreement is reached and a production license is issued. The company then prepares the field for production by drilling injection and production wells and also putting in place other surface facilities for production and processing of crude oil.

The National Oil and Gas Policy, 2008 recommends value addition through refining. A Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) between Government and the Licensed Oil Companies which provides for a commercialization plan for the development of the discovered oil and gas resources in the country was concluded during February 2014. The MoU provides for the use of petroleum for power generation, supply of Crude Oil to the refinery to be developed in Uganda and export of Crude Oil through an export pipeline or any other viable options.

Commercial production can only commence following the issuance of a production license, which authorises the holder to produce petroleum from a field whose appraisal has been completed and development plan approved. Commercial production of petroleum also requires putting in place infrastructure such as processing plants to separate the crude from impurities like sand and water, pipelines for transportation of crude from the fields, a refinery to transform the crude into the various products such as Diesel, Petrol, and Kerosene and facilities for the export of crude oil. These and other infrastructure such as the road networks, water and electricity in the Albertine Graben are being upgraded to support these developments. Full scale production has been earmarked for end of 2020, after the necessary infrastructure has been put in place.

Natural gas can be “associated gas” (found within oil), or “non-associated/ free gas” (independent natural gas reservoir). Associated gas cannot exist without oil in the reservoir which doesn’t necessarily apply to free gas reservoirs. The associated gas established in the country to date is estimated at 170 billion cubic feet (bcf) while non-associated gas is estimated at 500bcf.

The gas resources are commercially viable and can be used for power generation. In addition, natural gas can be used for domestic purposes such as heating and cooking. It can also be used as fuel for vehicles, the production of iron and steel from iron ore, in fertilizer plants and as a chemical feedstock in the manufacture of plastics and other commercially important organic chemicals. Natural gas can also be re-injected into the reservoirs to maintain pressure to support production of crude oil through enhancement of oil recovery. Alternatively, after processing, gas can be used for on-site electricity generation or used as feedstock for different petrochemical industries. Another possibility is to export natural gas as a liquid. Gas-to-liquids (GTL) is a developing technology that converts natural gas into synthetic gasoline, diesel, or jet fuel.

Uganda’s commercialisation strategy is focused on valuable utilization of the discovered resources, as provided for in the National Oil and Gas Policy for Uganda. The agreed commercialization strategy for Uganda’s 6.5 billion barrels of in place petroleum resources (1.4 billion barrels are recoverable) includes; 1) use of crude oil and gas for power generation, which will involve utilisation of associated gas (gas produced with oil) to generate power to support field development and production operations; 2) Supply of Crude Oil to a 60,000 barrels per day refinery to be developed in Uganda to meet national and regional petroleum products requirements; and 3) export of Crude Oil through an export pipeline or any other viable options.

Objective 4 of the National Oil and Gas Policy (2008) for Uganda is to promote valuable utilisation of the country’s oil and gas resources through in-country refining of crude oil. In this regard therefore, Government undertook a feasibility study on in-country refining in 2010 and the study recommended that development of a refinery in Uganda was the most economic option for the utilisation of Uganda’s crude oil. The refinery will also ensure security of supply of petroleum products to Uganda. In addition the refinery will create jobs for Ugandans, promote industrialisation while saving foreign exchange which would have been used to import petroleum products. A crude export pipeline will provide an alternative outlet for produced oil to ensure return on investment for the licensees and Government. Studies on the crude export pipeline routing were conducted and the Hoima (Uganda) – Tanga (Tanzania) route was selected as more secure, at a cheaper cost and a lower tariff.

The feasibility study recommended Kabaale Parish in Buseruka Sub County, Hoima district as the most suitable location for the refinery. This is due to its centrality in relation to the entire Albertine Graben, proximity to the oil fields, sparse population and relatively flat terrain among others.

A refinery with an input capacity of 60,000 barrels per day, starting with a capacity of 30,000 barrels per day will be developed. The refinery configuration and complexity determines which products can be produced from the crude oil. The planned refinery is expected to produce Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG), diesel, petrol, kerosene, jet fuel and Heavy Fuel Oil (HFO).

Government has invited private sector participation in the development of the refinery. The refinery will be developed on a Public-Private partnership (PPP). Government embarked on a competitive process of selection of a lead investor to lead the construction and operation of the refinery. This culminated in the signing of a Project Framework Agreement with the Albertine Graben Refinery Consortium in April 2018 to lead the development of the Refinery. East African member states have been invited to participate in the development of the refinery by taking part of the public shares. The Uganda Refining Holding Company that will hold Government’s interest on behalf of the Uganda National Oil Company was incorporated as a subsidiary and recruitment of staff is ongoing, starting with the General Manager.

The Ministry of Energy and Mineral Development has acquired 29 sq.km of land for the refinery. This land will host a refinery complex, an airport, waste management facilities and petrochemical industries among others. As part of this process, Government undertook a Resettlement Action Plan (RAP) through a consultative process with the Project Affected Persons (PAPs) (figure 7) for the required land during 2012. The objective of the RAP was to develop a framework for managing the loss of economic activities and livelihoods through compensation and/ or relocation of the affected people. Following approval of the RAP, its implementation commenced in July 2013 with disclosure of compensation values to verified land, crop and property owners and training in financial management and livelihood improvement to enable the PAPs put to good use the compensation packages. Payment of compensation packages commenced in December 2013 and by December 2016, 98% of PAPs who opted for cash compensation had received their payments. The remaining 2% consist of PAPs who have not shown up or have rejected the rates. In addition, 533 acres of land was acquired in Kyakabooga Parish, Buseruka Subcounty for resettlement of the PAPs who opted for relocation and physical planning for this land has been completed. Construction of resettlement houses for those who opted for relocation was completed and handed over to the PAPs during 2017.

A National Oil and Gas Policy for Uganda was approved by Cabinet in 2008. As part of efforts to operationalize the Policy, new legislation for the oil and gas sector in Uganda has been developed. The Petroleum Exploration, Development and Production (PEDP) Act 2013; and the Petroleum (Refining, Conversion, Transmission and Midstream Storage) Act 2013 became effective in April 2013 and July 2013 respectively. The former repealed the Petroleum Exploration and Production Act of 1985. In addition, the Ministry has developed regulations in line with the two Acts and these are; • The Petroleum (Exploration, Development and Production) Regulations 2016 • The Petroleum (Exploration, Development and Production) (Health, Safety and Environment) Regulations 2016 • The Petroleum (Exploration, Development and Production) (National Content) Regulations 2016 • The Petroleum (Exploration, Development and Production) (Metering) Regulations 2016 • The Petroleum (Refining, Conversion, Transmission and Midstream Storage) Regulations 2016. • The Petroleum (Refining, Conversion, Transmission and Midstream Storage) (National Content) Regulations, 2016. • The Petroleum (Refining, Conversion, Transmission and Midstream Storage) (Health, Safety and Environment) Regulations, 2016. This is in addition to other sectoral laws, statutes and guidelines on Environment, Wildlife, Water, Income Tax, Land, among others

The National Oil and Gas Policy highlights the roles of the different Government institutions led by the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Development. In line with the policy three key separate institutions have been created with the following roles:- • The Directorate of Petroleum in the Ministry which is responsible for policy making; coordinating the development of the sector; and undertake licensing and national and capacity building among other roles. • The Petroleum Authority of Uganda (PAU) regulates the different players in the sector, including enforcing compliance and monitoring the operations of oil companies. • The Uganda National Oil Company (UNOC) as a separate commercial entity responsible for state participation in the licences and other related business aspects. The detailed roles of the Petroleum Authority and National Oil Company are provided in the PEDP Act 2013. The Boards of Directors for PAU and UNOC were inaugurated in October 2015, and recruitment of the Executive Director and the Chief Executive Officer respectively by the respective boards of directors together with staff was undertaken during 2016 and 2017. The UNOC and PAU are now operational.

Hard copies of the National Oil and Gas Policy for Uganda and the laws and regulations can be accessed from the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Development, and soft copies from both MEMD and PAU’s websites www.energyandminerals.go.ug and www.pau.go.ug respectively. As part of the implementation of the National Communication Strategy for the Oil and Gas Sector in Uganda, government has developed a popular/ simplified version of the policy which has been translated into eleven local languages, which can also be accessed as highlighted above.

The National Communication Strategy for the oil and gas sector in Uganda identifies communities in the Albertine Graben as one of the key audiences for oil and gas information since they host oil and gas operations and infrastructure for the developments. Information dissemination to communities is undertaken through Community consultations and sensitisation meetings before and during operations. Radio talk shows are carried out periodically to relay information to communities in areas of operation and across the country on topics of common interest. In addition, the Community Development Officers based at the district and community levels are being capacity built to also support the dissemination of information on the oil and gas sector to the communities. Local communities supply most of the unskilled labour required during implementation of oil and gas activities in their areas. The Oil Companies undertake Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) initiatives to support service delivery in health (figure 8), education and enterprise development, among others in the communities where oil and gas activities are undertaken. The Ministry plans to set up regional offices to ensure easy accessibility for the communities.

The NOGP provides for efficiency in licensing through competitive bidding. The Petroleum (Exploration, Development and Production) Act, 2013 provides for licensing of areas with the potential for petroleum production in the country to be undertaken through open, transparent and competitive bidding. Less than 10% of the Albertine Graben is licensed. The first competitive licensing round for some of the areas which are currently not licensed was announced by the Minister for Energy and Mineral Development on 24th February 2015 and three new licenses were issued. The second competitive licensing round was announced in May 2019 and is still ongoing, covering 5 blocks in the Albertine Graben.

The Governments of Uganda and DRC (then Zaire) signed an agreement of cooperation in 1990, to allow for joint exploration and exploitation of resources across the border by either country. An addendum to the agreement was signed in 2007 to provide for how any fields falling across the border would be shared in line with the principle of unitization. This agreement allows establishment of the percentage of the field in each country and thereby determine each country’s share at the time of production. The two Governments have held discussions on the ongoing work in the Albertine Graben, exchange of technical data and visits to the Albertine Graben to understand the exploration work, among others. It is however important to note that the discoveries made in Uganda to date are not on the common border with DRC. The Governments of the two countries continue to have regular dialogue to ensure harmonious development of the resources on either side of the border.

Government revenues from oil and gas include royalties, profit oil share, state participation and taxes. These revenues are expected to increase over the years as the company’s recoverable costs reduce. The Production Sharing Agreements (PSAs) signed between Governments and the Oil companies provide for the sharing of petroleum during production. The International Oil Company (IOC) invests capital (along with the National Oil Company) in some cases. Investment costs are deducted from production revenues in the form of cost oil. The share of the revenues from the produced oil less cost oil is profit oil, which is shared between Government and the licensee. Government also receives other payments such as bonuses, royalties, duties, or taxes which are calculated on the basis of the amount of oil produced; Government and the IOC will share profit oil throughout the entire duration of production. Government also receives corporate tax on the IOC’s share of profit oil.

The Production Sharing Agreement (PSAs) provides that the financing risk for petroleum operations is borne by oil companies. When commercial production starts, the company receives a proportion of oil/gas production for the recovery of their costs and a share of the profits. The PSAs set out the criterion under which these costs are determined basing on the annual work programmes and budgets undertaken by the oil companies. These work programmes and budgets are presented to the Advisory Committee comprised of representatives of Government and the Oil Companies for consideration and approval. The Auditor General audits the annual books of account of the oil companies and indicates approval of the recoverable costs for petroleum activities for the period under review.

The Petroleum Authority of Uganda is required to monitor and regulate all operations of the oil companies. Prior to its creation, the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Development deployed on-site field monitors during all company operations to among other things ensure that the executed work programmes and budgets are in-line with those approved and follow-up to ensure that work is undertaken in line with the provisions of the Laws, PSAs and Regulations. The Companies submit daily reports regarding operations, including the costs for these operations. Other institutions such as NEMA and UWA also have field based monitors who work with the District Environment Officers and District Community Development Officers to monitor the Environmental, biodiversity and social aspects.

The goal of the National Oil and Gas Policy is to use the country’s oil and gas resources to contribute to early achievement of poverty eradication and create lasting value to society. The Oil and Gas Revenue Management Policy emphasises the need for Petroleum revenues to be used to develop infrastructure and enhance the other productive sectors of the economy such as agriculture, tourism, manufacturing, education, among others. This will enable the benefits of oil revenues to be shared with the entire population and its impact is felt even after the resources are depleted. The Public Finance Management Act 2015, Part VIII Section 55-75 provides for among others, the management of revenues received from petroleum resources, specifically how these revenues will be monitored, invested, audited and dispersed to support development. The Act also provides for sharing of revenues between Central Government, Local Governments and Cultural Institutions. Local Governments will receive 6% of royalties and Cultural institutions will receive 1% of royalties.

Acquisition and/or use of land for petroleum operations is in respect of the rights of the land owners and obligations provided for in the country’s laws. Compensation rates for crops, trees and other non-permanent property are determined by the district land board and approved by the Chief Government Valuer in the Ministry of Lands, Housing and Urban Development. These rates are reviewed to ensure equity and that they are in line with prevailing market prices. Land is valued based on the market rates as provided for in Section 77 of the Land Act Cap.227 and international valuation practices. The value is assessed by professional valuers after conducting a survey to establish the prevailing market price for land in a given locality using a comparative method. These rates are verified and approved by the Chief Government Valuer. Continuous sensitization and training of communities is being undertaken to ensure awareness of their rights and responsibilities and to enable them guard against speculators and land grabbing.

The Albertine Graben was declared a special planning area during 2010 and emphasis has been put on physical planning of Municipalities and other towns in the region. Draft plans for Buliisa town council together (figure 11) with, Sebugoro in Hoima district and Butiaba in Buliisa district have been prepared and are under review. The Ministry of Lands, Housing and Urban Development (MLHUD) is has prepared physical development plans for the area around the refinery in Buseruka Subcounty, Hoima District. In addition, MLHUD has developed a Landuse plan for the entire Albertine Graben.

Frameworks to ensure harmonious existence between the environment and oil and gas operations are in place and are being implemented. These include: • Environment and Social Impact Assessments (ESIAs) which are undertaken in consultation with Government through National Environment Management Authority (NEMA) and the local communities. This ensures that any potential impacts – positive or negative – are considered and mitigation measures are put in place. • A multi-institutional monitoring team from NEMA, PEDPD, Uganda Wildlife Authority (UWA), National Forestry Authority (NFA), Directorate of Water Resources Management (DWRM), and Directorate of Fisheries Resources (DFR) together with the respective District Environment Officers continually monitor the activities. • Other frameworks developed to date include an Environmental Sensitivity Atlas for the AG, an Environment Monitoring Plan, and an Enforcement Strategy together with Guidelines for Waste management and Operations in protected areas. A Strategic Environment Assessment for oil and gas activities has also been developed to ensure that environmental concerns are included in all Government Plans, Programmes & Policies.

ESIAs are indeed public documents, and a copy of the final ESIA report is forwarded to the district through the District Environment Officer (DEO). It includes all comments and concerns raised and the responses given during consultations with stakeholders.

Waste produced from drilling operations is mainly composed of mud cuttings which are a mixture of rock cuttings and drilling fluid that contains additives like bentonite, barite which are used in the drilling process. In Uganda, Water Based Mud (WBM) has been used most often because it is more environmentally friendly than Oil Based Mud (OBM). During the exploration phase, waste generated from the well sites was stored at designated consolidation sites where the waste was containerized and monitored. So far, no accidents have been reported with regard to waste generated from various exploration and production activities, as well as base camps. NEMA has licensed twelve companies to handle waste at different levels namely; transportation, treatment and disposal. Enviroserv, White Nile Consultants Limited and Luwero Industries have constructed facilities in Hoima and Nakasongola respectively and are now licensed to operate these facilities. The previously containerized waste has been transferred to these facilities for treatment and disposal. In addition, the requisite legislation for waste management is being updated.

Oil spills undeniably present a risk in petroleum production processes across both developing and developed countries. In Uganda, oil spills present an additional risk given that Lake Albert is shared with Democratic Republic of Congo and also feeds the White Nile that flows to South Sudan and beyond. The rich biodiversity in the Albertine Graben presents another challenge. To this end, an Environment Risk Assessment (ERA) and Sensitivity Analysis for oil and gas operations in the Albertine Graben was undertaken. This informed the development of an Oil Spill Contingency Plan that was drafted with input from Office of the Prime Minister, NEMA, Ministry of Water and Environment, the Directorate of Petroleum and the Petroleum Authority of Uganda (PAU) among other agencies. The plan considers level of Preparedness, Emergency response mechanism, Command structure, Resources available and Mechanisms for handling oil spill.

The National Oil and Gas Policy recognises that the oil and gas sector can have a negative effect of oil and gas resource utilization leading to economic stagnation, environment degradation and increased poverty. Government of Uganda is conscious of the fact that very many resource rich countries in Africa have remained poor despite the existence of natural resources. Government has therefore developed a robust policy, legal, regulatory and institutional framework that addresses the potential negative environmental, social and economic impacts of petroleum exploration and production in Uganda. In addition, capacity has been build both within and outside Government to ensure strict monitoring and accountability. All stakeholders must play their respective roles to ensure effective and efficient development and management of the oil and gas sector in Uganda.

SEA is a new concept internationally which aims to evaluate the cumulative impacts of the oil and gas operations to ensure that these are captured in all Government Plans, Policies and Programs (PPP) across different sectors of the economy. The assessment indicated that there would be economic gains, albeit not without environmental and social challenges. For example, a large volume of waste would be generated with hazard potential to human beings, water bodies and animals. The assessment also indicated demographic changes in the region that would require planned social amenities like road networks, health facilities, and urban plans to avoid slums, among others. Some of the SEA recommendations under implementation include; development of a waste management plan and strategy to complement the laws that are already in place; State of the art waste management facilities have been constructed in the graben; the Ministry of Works and Transport together with Uganda National Roads Authority are upgrading the road networks in the Albertine Graben; plans to build an international airport are underway; Clean water infrastructure has been extended to region; and a police department to attend to oil and gas issues has been formed. In addition, the Ministry of Education and Sports has sanctioned a curriculum that attends to oil and gas by setting upgrading existing technical institutions to provide certifiable oil and gas training. The Ministry of Lands has developed has prepared a regional physical development plan for the entire Albertine Graben and planning for several growth centers in the region is ongoing.

 

There will be opportunities for employment and service provision. The Industrial Baseline Study estimates over 160,000 jobs to be created during the next phase of exploration and the development of the fields at Professional, Technical/ Artisan and Unskilled levels from direct, indirect and induced opportunities. The study also identifies 25 critical industries with high potential for National Content for Uganda. These are; Civil construction, Site safety and security, Road construction, Bulk material, Cement, Catering, Domestic airline services, Facility management, Food supply, Fuel wholesale, Furniture manufacturing, Generic waste management, General maintenance, Hazardous waste management, Light equipment, Manpower consultancy, Mechanical construction, Production operations, Structural/flat steel, Technical consulting, Transport & Logistics (Goods), Transportation (People), Vendors, Work safety products, Reinforcement steel manufacturing. The National Content Regulations further provide for fifteen categories of goods and services reserved for Ugandan suppliers; Transportation, Security, Foods and beverages, Hotel, accommodation and catering, Human resource management, Office supplies., Fuel supply, Land surveying, Clearing and forwarding, Crane hire, Locally available construction materials, Civil works, Environment studies and impact assessments, Communications and information technology services and Waste management, where possible.

Government has put in place policy, legal, regulatory and institutional frameworks to ensure National Content development in the oil and gas sector, specifically during the development phase where the bulk of the opportunities are. This framework gives first priority of employment and supply of goods and services to Ugandans where capacity is available in the country. Where capacity is lacking, Government is working with the licensees, development partners and the private sector to build the necessary capacity of Ugandan citizens and companies to benefit from the available opportunities. This is being undertaken in line with the workforce skills development strategy and plan and the industrial baseline study. Some of the efforts include,  Regulating in-flow of expatriates into the country,  Supporting national enterprises to acquire contracts for goods and service provision,  Emphasizing capacity building and enhancing the capacity of Ugandan institutions to provide required training at all levels.  Dissemination of information on the oil and gas industry requirements such as manpower and services among others,  Putting in place an Enterprise Enhancement Center to raise the standards of businesses and entrepreneurs,  Development of a National Suppliers’ Database and a National Oil and Gas Talent Register,  Development of standards for goods and services reserved for Ugandans among other measures  Implementation of an Agriculture Support Development Programme

There are both technical and non-technical employment opportunities in the oil and gas sector (figure 13). These include opportunities for qualified Geoscientists, Engineers, Economists, Accountants, Social Work, among others. These opportunities are advertised in the media and are competitive. The unskilled jobs in the exploration areas are offered based on recommendations made by the community leaders in the areas where the operations take place. The oil and gas sector, is however, not a mass employer but offers more opportunities in service provision and spill over benefits through other sectors such as clearing and forwarding, ICT, hospitality, manufacturing, transportation, construction which are also growing.

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